Automatic weather stations besides quick and accurate collect of different information about air temperature , wind speed, wind direction , day duration, sun radiation ,pollution measuring , snow fall , rain fall , amount of evaporation , humidity, they also store and transmit all the data associated with metrological conditions to predetermined points .this information has played an important role in research and operational programs and it is also used as primary data in processing and various equations. On top of all these this information is taken in order to inform in different part including navigation ,weather forecasting ,industry , agriculture and many others are used . Rapid and instantaneous access to information and also lack of needing to human resources causes the stations to be more applicable.
These systems are a set of electronic- telecommunication-smart and programmable equipments which are built and designed base on standard protocols in electronic. while they can be applied independently , they also provide the possibility of connecting to central controlling systems ( SCADA) in order to expanding systems . SCADA systems contains features especially which are provided in communication layer and also in information networks (LAN, INTERRNET ,….). they provide the possibility of accessing to management information system (MIS) ,statistics production control (spc), central periodic maintenance (PM), and efficiency control .
The reasons of applying these systems in new management systems are as follows:
- .Integrated system of water resources management
- Informative system in order to help in water resources planning process.
- Hydrologic modeling and data analysis programs, monthly, seasonal and annual.
The basic fact is that equations in metrological process is not linear and linear model is only for simplicity. However, using data obtained from automated weather systems causes receiving models base on real data and process them preferably.
The benefits of automated stations.
- quick access to data and information
- reduce human members
- high accuracy and eliminates human error
- allow data collection in rugged areas and harsh weather conditions.
The general structure of the automatic weather stations
they are converters which convert the changes of a physical quantity such as temperature, humidity, sun radiation and etc to an electrical signal.
The output signals of sensors will enter in to this part and after processing and storing , the raw data will be obtained.
Software is used in order to analyze the data , calculating average , maximum and minimum and plotting graphs and charts .
This system is able to automatically transmit data from station to the other parts.
Mast , power part , arrester are the other paraphernalia of weather stations.